Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Human Resource Development Group
CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research
Fellowship and Lecturer-ship
EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, OCEAN AND PLANETARY SCIENCES
PAPER I (PART B)
1. The Earth and the Solar System:
Milky Way and the solar system. Modern theories on the origin
of the Earth and other planetary bodies. Earth's orbital parameters, Kepler's
laws of planetary motion, Geological Time Scale; Space and time scales of
processes in the solid Earth, atmosphere and oceans. Radioactive isotopes and
their applications. Meteorites Chemical composition and the Primary
differentiation of the earth. Basic principles of stratigraphy. Theories about
the origin of life and the nature of fossil record. Earth's gravity and magnetic
fields and its thermal structure: Concept of Geoid and, spheroid;
2. Earth Materials, Surface Features and Processes:
Gross composition and physical properties of important
minerals and rocks; properties and processes responsible for mineral
concentrations; nature and distribution of rocks and minerals in different units
of the earth and different parts of India. Physiography of the Earth;
weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition of Earth's material;
formation of soil, sediments and sedimentary rocks; energy balance of the
Earth's surface processes; physiographic features and river basins in India
3. Interior of the Earth, Deformation and Tectonics
Basic concepts of seismology and internal structure of the
Earth. Physico-chemical and seismic properties of Earth's interior. Concepts of
stress and strain. Behaviour of rocks under stress; Folds, joints and faults.
Earthquakes – their causes and measurement. Interplate and intraplate seismicity.
Paleomagnetism, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
4. Oceans and Atmosphere
Hypsography of the continents and ocean floor –continental
shelf, slope, rise and abyssal plains. Physical and chemical properties of sea
water and their spatial variations. Residence times of elements in sea water.
Ocean currents, waves and tides, important current systems, thermohaline
circulation and the oceanic conveyor belt. Major water masses of the world's
oceans. Biological productivity in the oceans.
Motion of fluids, waves in atmospheric and oceanic systems. Atmospheric
turbulence and boundary layer. Structure and chemical composition of the
atmosphere, lapse rate and stability, scale height, geopotential, greenhouse
gases and global warming. Cloud formation and precipitation processes, air- sea
interactions on different space and time scales. Insolation and heat budget,
radiation balance, general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Climatic and
sea level changes on different time scales. Coupled ocean-atmosphere system, El
Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). General weather systems of India, - Monsoon
system, cyclone and jet stream, Western disturbances and severe local convective
systems, distribution of precipitation over India. Marine and atmospheric
pollution, ozone depletion.
5. Environmental Earth Sciences
Properties of water; hydrological cycle; water resources and
management. Energy resources, uses, degradation, alternatives and management;
Ecology and biodiversity. Impact of use of energy and land on the environment.
Exploitation and conservation of mineral and other natural resources. Natural
hazards. Elements of Remote Sensing.
PAPER I (PART C)
1) MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY:
Concept of point group, space group, reciprocal lattice,
diffraction and imaging. Concepts of crystal field theory and mineralogical
spectroscopy. Lattice defects (point, line and planar). Electrical, magnetic and
optical properties of minerals. Bonding and crystal structures of common oxides,
sulphides, and silicates. Transformation of minerals – polymorphism, polytypism,
and polysomatism. Solid solution and exsolution. Steady-state geotherms.
Genesis, properties, emplacement and crystallization of magmas. Phase
equilibrium studies of simple systems, effect of volatiles on melt equilibria.
Magma-mixing, - mingling and -immiscibility.
Metamorphic structures and textures; isograds and facies. Mineral reactions with
condensed phases, solid solutions, mixed volatile equilibria and thermobarometry.
Metamorphism of pelites, mafic-ultra mafic rocks and siliceous dolomites.
Material transport during metamorphism. P-T-t path in regional metamorphic
terrains, plate tectonics and metamorphism.
Petrogenetic aspects of important rock suites of India, such as the Deccan
Traps, layered intrusive complexes, anorthosites, carbonatites, charnockites,
alkaline rocks, Kimberlites, ophiolites and granitoids.
2) STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND GEOTECTONICS:
Theory of stress and strain. Behaviour of rocks under stress.
Mohr circle. Various states of stress and their representation by Mohr circles.
Different types of failure and sliding criteria. Geometry and mechanics of
fracturing and conditions for reactivation of pre-existing discontinuities.
Common types of finite strain ellipsoids. L-, L-S-, and S-tectonic fabrics.
Techniques of strain analysis. Particle paths and flow patterns. Progressive
strain history. Introduction to deformation mechanisms. Role of fluids in
deformation processes. Geometry and analyses of brittle-ductile and ductile
shear zones. Sheath folds. Geometry and mechanics of development of folds,
boudins, foliations and lineations. Interference patterns of superposed fold.
Fault-related folding. Gravity induced structures Tectonic features of
extensional-, compressional-, and strike-slip-terrains and relevance to plate
boundaries. mantle plumes. Himalayan Orogeny; concept of super continent, their
assembly and breakup.
3) PALEONTOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS:
Theories on origin of life. Organic evolution – Punctuated
Equilibrium and Phyletic Gradualism models. Mass extinctions and their causes.
Application of fossils in age determination and correlation. Paleoecology, Life
habitats and various ecosystems, Paleobiogeography. Modes of preservation of
fossils and taphonomic considerations. Types of microfossils. Environmental
significance of fossils and trace fossils. Use of microfossils in interpretation
of sea floor tectonism. Application of micropaleontology in hydrocarbon
exploration. Oxygen and Carbon isotope studies of microfossils and their use in
paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic interpretation. Important invertebrate
fossils, vertebrate fossils, plant fossils and microfossils in Indian
4) SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY:
Classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks ; elastic,
volcanoclastic and chemical. Classification of elastic rocks. Flow regimes and
processes of sediment transport. Sedimentary textures and structures.
Sedimentary facies and environments, reconstruction of paleoenvironments.
Formation and evolution of sedimentary basins. Diagenesis of siliciclastic and
carbonate rocks. Recent developments in stratigraphic classification. Code of
stratigraphic nomenclature – Stratotypes, Global Boundary Stratotype Sections
and Points (GSSP). Lithostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic
subdivisions. Methods of startigraphic correlation including Shaw's Graphic
correlation. Concept of sequence stratigraphy. Rates of sediment accumulation,
unconformities. Facies concept in Stratigraphy – Walther's law. Methods for
paleogeographic reconstruction. Earth's Climatic History. Phanerozoic
stratigraphy of India with reference to the type areas– their correlation with
equivalent formations in other regions. Boundary problems in Indian Phanerozoic
5) MARINE GEOLOGY AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHY:
Morphologic and tectonic domains of the ocean floor.
Structure, composition and mechanism of the formation of oceanic crust.
hydrothermal vents-. Ocean margins and their significance. Ocean Circulation,
Coriolis effect and Ekman spiral, convergence, divergence and upwelling, El
Nino. Indian Ocean Dipole Thermohaline circulation and oceanic conveyor belt.
Formation of Bottom waters; major water masses of the world's oceans. Oceanic
sediments: Factors controlling the deposition and distribution of oceanic
sediments; geochronology of oceanic sediments, diagenetic changes in oxic and
anoxic environments. Tectonic evolution of the ocean basins. Mineral resources.
Paleoceanography – Approaches to paleoceanographic reconstructions; various
proxy indicators for paleoceanographic interpretation. Reconstruction of monsoon
variability by using marine proxy records Opening and closing of ocean gateways
and their effect on circulation and climate during the Cenozoic. Sea level
processes and Sea level changes. Methods of paleo Sea Surface temperature.
Atomic Structure and properties of elements, the Periodic
Table; ionic substitution in minerals; Phase rule and its applications in
petrology, thermodynamics of reactions involving pure phases, ideal and
non-ideal solutions, and fluids; equilibrium and distribution coefficients.
Nucleation and diffusion processes in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
environments, redox reactions and EhpH diagrams and their applications.
Mineral/mineral assemblages as „sensors‟ of ambient
environments. Geochemical studies of aerosols, surface-, marine-, and ground
waters. Radioactive decay schemes and their application to geochronology and
petrogenesis. Stable isotopes and their application to earth system processes;
geochemical differentiation of the earth; geochemical cycles.
7) ECONOMIC GEOLOGY:
Magmatic, hydrothermal and surface processes of ore
formation. Metallogeny and its relation to crustal evolution; Active ore-forming
systems, methods of mineral deposit studies including ore microscopy, fluid
inclusions and isotopic systematics; ores and metamorphism- cause and effect
relationships. Geological setting, characteristics, and genesis of ferrous, base
and noble metals. Origin, migration and entrapment of petroleum; properties of
source and reservoir rocks; structural,
stratigraphic and combination traps. Methods of petroleum exploration. Concepts
of petrophysics, Petroliferous basins of India. Origin of peat, lignite, bitumen
and anthracite. Classification, rank and grading of coal; coal petrography, coal
resources of India. Gas hydrates and coal bed methane. Nuclear and
non-conventional energy resources.
8) PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY AND CRUSTAL EVOLUTION:
Evolution of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere,
and cryosphere;, lithological, geochemical and stratigraphic characteristics of
granite – greenstone and granulite belts. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the
cratonic nuclei, mobile belts and Proterozoic sedimentary basins of India. Life
in Precambrian. Precambrian – Cambrian boundary with special reference to India.
9) QUATERNARY GEOLOGY:
Definition of Quaternary. Quaternary Stratigraphy – Oxygen
Isotope stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. Quaternary
climates – glacial-interglacial cycles, eustatic changes, proxy indicators of
paleoenvironmental/ paleoclimatic changes, - land, ocean and cryosphere (ice
core studies). Responses of geomorphic systems to climate, sea level and
tectonics on variable time scales in the Quaternary, Quaternary dating methods,
–radiocarbon, Uranium series, Luminescence, Aminoacid. Quaternary stratigraphy
of India– continental records (fluvial, glacial, aeolian, palaeosols and
duricrust); marine records; continental-marine correlation of Quaternary record.
Evolution of man and Stone Age cultures. Plant and animal life in relation to
glacial and interglacial cycles during Quaternary. Tectonic geomorphology,
neotectonics, active tectonics and their applications to natural hazard
10) (I) APPLIED GEOLOGY:
(i) Remote Sensing and GIS: Elements of photogrammetry,
elements of photo-interpretation, electromagnetic spectrum, emission range, film
and imagery, sensors, geological interpretations of air photos and imageries.
Global positioning systems. GIS- data structure, attribute data, thematic layers
and query analysis.
(ii) Engineering Geology: Engineering properties of
rocks and physical characteristics of building stones, concretes and other
aggregates. Geological investigations for construction of dams, bridges,
highways and tunnels. Remedial measures. Mass movements with special emphasis on
landslides and causes of hillslope instability. Seismic design of buildings.
(iii) Mineral Exploration: Geological, geophysical,
geochemical and geobotanical methods of surface and sub-surface exploration on
different scales. Sampling, assaying and evaluation of mineral deposits.
(iv) Hydrogeology: Groundwater, Darcy's law,
hydrological characteristics of aquifers, hydrological cycle. Precipitation,
evapotranspiration and infiltration processes. Hydrological classification of
water-bearing formations. Fresh and salt-water relationships in coastal and
inland areas. Groundwater exploration and water pollution. Groundwater regimes
(II) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
1) Geomorphology: Concepts in geomorphology.
Historical and process Geomorphology. Landforms in relation to climate, rock
type, structure and tectonics. Processes – weathering, pedogenesis, mass
movement, erosion, transportation and deposition. Geomorphic processes and
landforms – fluvial, glacial, eolian, coastal and karst. River forms and
processes – stream flow, stagedischarge relationship; hydrographs and flood
frequency analysis. Submarine relief. Geomorphology and topographic analysis
including DEM, Environmental change– causes, effects on processes and landforms.
2) Climatology: Fundamental principles of climatology.
Earth's radiation balance; latitudinal and seasonal variation of insolation,
temperature, pressure, wind belts, humidity, cloud formation and precipitation,
water balance. Air masses, monsoon, Jet streams, tropical cyclones, and ENSO.
Classification of climates – Koppen's and Thornthwaite's scheme of
classification. Climate change.
3) Bio-geography: Elements of biogeography with
special reference to India; environment, habitat, plant-animal association;
zoo-geography of India; Biomes, elements of plant geography, distribution of
forests and major plant communities. Distribution of major animal communities.
forests. Wildlife sanctuaries and parks.
4) Environmental Geography: Man-land relationship.
Resources – renewable and non-renewable. Natural and man-made hazards –
droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis. Ecological
balance, environmental pollution and deterioration.
5) Geography of India: Physiography, drainage,
climate, soils and natural resources – the Himalaya, Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains,
and peninsular India Precambrian shield, the Gondwana rift basins, Deccan
Plateau. Indian climatology with special reference to seasonal distribution and
variation of temperature, humidity, wind and precipitation; Climate zones of
India. Agricultural geography of India. Population – its distribution and
characteristics. Urbanization and migration. Environmental
problems and issues.
1) Signal Processing: Continuous and discrete signals;
Fourier series; auto and cross correlations, linear time invariant systems with
deterministic and random inputs; band limited signal and sampling theorem;
Fourier and Fast Fourier transforms; Z-transform; convolution; Filters: discrete
and continuous, recursive, non-recursive, optimal and inverse filters;
deconvolution; fractal analysis.
2) Field theory: Newtonian potential; Laplace and Poisson's
equations; Green's Theorem; Gauss' law; Continuation integral; equivalent
stratum; Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic theory; Displacement potential,
Helmhotz's theorem and seismic wave propagation.
3) Numerical analysis and inversion: Numerical
differentiation and integration, finite element, and finite difference
techniques; Simpson's rules; Gauss' quadrature formula; initial value problems;
pattern recognition in Geophysics. Well posed and ill-posed problems; method of
least squares; direct search and gradient methods; generalized inversion
techniques; singular value decomposition; global optimization.
4) Gravity and Magnetic fields of the earth: Normal
gravity field; Clairaut's theorem; Shape of the earth; deflection of the
vertical, geoid, free-air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, isostatic models for
local and regional compensation. Geomagnetic field, secular and transient
variations and their theories; palaeomagnetism, construction of polar wandering
5) Plate Tectonics and Geodynamics: Marine magnetic
anomalies, sea floor spreading; midoceanic ridges and geodynamics; plate
tectonics hypothesis; plate boundaries and seismicity. Heat flow mechanisms,
thermal moddling of earth,core-mantle convection and mantle plumes.
6)Seismology Elastic theory: Seismometry: short
period, long period, broad band and strong motion; elements of earthquake
seismology; seismic sources: faulting source, double couple hypothesis, seismic
moment tensor, focal mechanism and fault plane solutions; seismic gaps;
seismotectonics and structure of the earth; Himalayan and stable continental
region earthquakes, reservoir induced seismicity; seismic hazards; earthquake
prediction, travel time residuals, velocity anomalies, seismic tomography.
7) Gravity and Magnetic Methods: Gravimeters and
magnetometers; data acquisition from land, air and ship; corrections and
reduction of anomalies; ambiguity; regional and residual separation;
continuation and derivative calculations; interpretation of anomalies of simple
geometric bodies, single pole, sphere, horizontal cylinder, sheet, dyke and
fault. Forward modelling and inversion of arbitrary shaped bodies and 2-D, 3-D
interfaces. Interpretations in frequency domain.
8) Electrical and Electromagnetic Methods:
Electrical profiling and sounding, typical sounding curves, pseudo-sections;
resistivity transform and direct interpretation; induced polarization methods.
Electromagnetic field techniques; elliptic polarization, in-phase and out of
phase components, horizontal and vertical loop methods; interpretation; VLF
(very low frequency); AFMAG (Audio frequency magnetic) methods; and central
frequency sounding; transient electromagnetic methods;
magneto-telluric method; geomagnetic depth sounding.
9) Seismic Methods: Generalized Snell's Law;
Ray theory; reflection, refraction, diffraction; Zoeppritz's equation; seismic
energy sources; detectors; seismic noises and noise profile analysis; seismic
data recording, reduction to a datum and weathering corrections; Interpretation
of refraction and reflection data; CDP/CMP; velocity analysis, F-K filtering,
stacking, deconvolution, migration before and after stack; bright spot analysis;
wavelet processing; attenuation studies, shear waves, AVO; VSP; introduction to
3D seismics; seismic stratigraphy.
10) Well logging: Open hole, cased hole and production
logging; Electrical logs; lateral, latero, induction, temperature, S.P; porosity
logs; sonic, density, neutron; natural gamma; determination of formation factor,
porosity, permeability, density, water saturation, lithology; logging while
1) Climatology: Same as under Geography
2) Physical Meteorology: Thermal structure of the
atmosphere and its composition. Radiation: basic Laws - Rayleigh and Mie
scattering, multiple scattering, radiation from the sun, solar constant, effect
of clouds, surface and planetary albedo. Emission and absorption of terrestrial
radiation, radiation windows, radiative transfer, Greenhouse effect, net
radiation budget; Thermodynamics of dry and moist air: specific gas constant,
Adiabatic and isoentropic processes, entropy and enthalpy, Moisture variables,
virtual temperature; Clausius – Clapeyron equation, adiabatic process of moist
air; thermodynamic diagrams: Hydrostatic equilibrium: Hydrostatic equation,
variation of pressure with height, geopotential, standard atmosphere, altimetry.
Vertical stability of the atmosphere: Dry and moist air parcel and slice
methods. Tropical convection. Atmospheric optics - visibility - optical
phenomenon - rainbows, haloes, corona, glarg, mirage.
3) Atmospheric Electricity: Fair weather electric
field in the atmosphere and potential gradients, ionization in the atmosphere.
Electrical fields in thunderstorms, theories of thunderstorm electrification -
Structure of lightening flash-mechanism of earth-atmospheric change balance-role
4) Cloud Physics: Cloud classification,
condensation nuclei, growth of cloud drops and ice-crystals, precipitation
mechanisms: Bergeron, Findeisen process, coalescence process – Precipitation of
warm and mixed clouds, artificial precipitation, hail suppression, fog and cloud
– dissipation, radar observation of clouds and precipitation, radar equation,
rain drop spectra, radar echoes of hail storm and tornadoes, radar observation
of hurricanes, measurements of rainfall by radar.
5) Dynamic Meteorology: Basic equations and
fundamental forces: Pressure, gravity, centripetal and Corolis forces,
continuity equation in Cartesian and isobaric coordinates. Momentum equation
Cartesian and spherical coordinates; scale analysis, inertial flow, geostrophic
and gradient winds, thermal wind. Divergence and vertical motion Rossby,
Richardson, Reynolds and Froude numbers. Circulation, vorticity and divergence;
Bjerknese circulation theorem and applications, vorticity and divergence
equations, scale analysis, potential vorticity, stream function and velocity
potential. Atmospheric turbulence: Mixing length theory, planetary boundary
layer equations, surface layer, Ekman layer, eddy transport of heat, moisture
and momentum, Richardson criterion; Linear Perturbation Theory: Internal and
external gravity waves, inertia waves, gravity waves, Rossby waves, wave motion
in the tropics, barotropic and baroclinic instabilities. Atmospheric Energetics:
Kinetic, potential and internal energies – conversion of potential and internal
energies into kinetic energy, available potential energy.
6) Numerical Weather Prediction: computational
instability, filtering of sound and gravity waves, filtered forecast equations,
barotropic and equivalent barotropic models, two parameter baroclinic model,
relaxation method. Multi-layer primitive equation models. Short, medium and long
range weather prediction. Objective analysis; Initialization of the data for use
in weather prediction models; data assimilation techniques, application of
satellite in NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) and remotely sensed data.
7) General Circulation and Climate Modelling: Observed
zonally symmetric circulations, meridional circulation models, mean meridional
and eddy transport of momentum and energy, angular momentum and energy budgets;
zonally asymmetric features of general circulation; standing eddies; east-west
circulations in tropics: climate variability and forcings; feedback processes,
low frequency variability, MJO Madden-Julian oscillation), ENSO, QBO
(quasi-biennial oscillation) and
sunspot cycles. Basic principles of general circulation modelling; grid-point
and spectral GCMs; role of the ocean in climate modelling; interannual
variability of ocean fields (SST, winds, circulation, etc.) and its relationship
with monsoon, concepts of ocean – atmosphere coupled models.
8) Synoptic Meteorology: Weather observations and
transmission, synoptic charts, analysis of surface, upper air another derivative
chart, stream-lines, isotachs and contour analysis; tilt and slope of
pressure/weather systems with height. Synoptic weather forecasting, prediction
of weather elements such as rain, maximum and minimum temperature and fog;
hazardous weather elements like thunderstorms, duststorms, tornadoes. Tropical
meteorology: Trade wind inversion, ITCZ;
monsoon trough tropical cyclones, their structure and development theory;
monsoon depressions; tropical easterly jet stream; low level jets, Somali jet,
waves in easterlies; western disturbances; SW and NE monsoons; synoptic features
associated with onset, withdrawal, break active and weak monsoons and their
prediction. Air masses and fronts: sources, origin and classification of air
masses; and fronts, frontogenesis and frontolysis; structure of cold and warm
fronts; weather systems associated with fronts. Extra-tropical synoptic scale
features: jet streams, extratropical cyclones and anticyclones.
9) Aviation Meteorology: Role of meteorology in
aviation, weather hazards associated with take off cruising and landing,
inflight – icing, turbulence, visibility, fog, clouds, rain, gusts, wind shear
and thunderstorms, nowcasting and very short range forecasting.
10) Satellite Meteorology: Meteorological satellites –
Polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, visible and infrared radiometers,
multiscanner radiometers; identification of synoptic systems, fog and
sandstorms, detection of cyclones, estimation of SST, cloud top temperatures,
winds and rainfall:
temperature and humidity soundings.
(V) OCEAN SCIENCES
1) Physical Oceanography: T-S diagrams; mixing
processes in the oceans; characteristics of important water masses. Wind
generated waves in the oceans; their characteristics; shallow and deep water
waves. Propagation, refraction, and reflection of waves. Wave spectrum,
principles of wave forecasting. Tide-producing forces and their magnitudes;
prediction of tides by the harmonic method; tides and tidal currents in shallow
seas, estuaries and rivers. Factors influencing coastal processes;
transformation of waves in shallow water; effects of stratification; effect of
bottom friction, phenomena of wave reflection, refraction and diffraction;
breakers and surf; littoral currents; wave action on sediments – movement to
beach material; rip currents; beach stability, ocean beach nourishment; harbour
resonance; seiches; tsunami; interaction of waves and structure. Estuaries:
classification and nomenclature; tides in estuaries; estuarine circulation and
– averaged and breadth – averaged models; sedimentation in estuaries; salinity
intrusion in estuaries; effect of stratification; coastal pollution; mixing and
dispersal of pollutants in estuaries and nearshore areas; coastal zone
The global wind system; action of wind on ocean surface; Ekman's theory;
Sverdrup, Stommel and Munk's theories; upwelling and sinking with special
reference to the Indian ocean. Inertial currents; divergences and convergences;
geostrophic motion; barotropic and baroclinic conditions; oceanic eddies,
relationship between density, pressure and dynamic topography; relative and
slope currents. Wind driven coastal currents; typical scales of motion in the
ocean. Characteristics of the global conveyor belt circulation and its causes.
Formation of subtropical gyres; western boundary currents; equatorial current
systems; El Nino; monsoonal winds and currents over the North Indian Ocean;
Somali current; southern ocean. Upwelling process in the Arabian Sea.
2) Chemical Oceanography: Composition of seawater –
Classification of elements based on their distribution; major and minor
elements, their behavior and chemical exchanges across interfaces and residence
times in seawater. Element chemistry in atypical conditions-estuaries,
hydrothermal vents, anoxic basins, HNLC waters, sediment pore fluid and
anthropogenic inputs. Chemical and biological interactions – Ionic interactions;
biochemical cycling of nutrients, trace metals and organic matter. Air-sea
exchange of important biogenic dissolved gases; carbon dioxidecarbonate system;
alkalinity and control of pH; biological pump.
Factors affecting sedimentary deposits-CaCO3, Silicate, Manganese nodules,
phosphorites and massive single deposits.
3) Geological Oceanography: Same topics as under subhead “Marine
Geology & paleooceanography”
4) Biological Oceanography: Classification of the
marine environment and marine organisms. Physio-chemical factors affecting
marine life – light, temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved
gases; adaptation and biological processes. Primary and secondary production;
factors controlling phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and diversity;
nekton and fisheries oceanography; benthic organisms; coastal marine communities
and community ecology – estuaries, coral reefs and mangrove communities,
deep-sea ecology including hydrothermal vent communities. Energy flow and
mineral cycling – energy transfer and transfer efficiencies through different
trophic levels; food webs including the microbial loop. Human impacts on marine
communities; impacts of climate change on marine biodiversity. Impact of
pollution on marine environments including fisheries.